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Levamisole Hydrochloride (Levamisole HCl), is an anthelmintic (anti-worm) agent commonly used in large livestock such as cattle, pigs and sheep. In 1971 it was found to have immunostimulatory properties and investigation into its use in humans began to expand. Currently, Levamisole HCl is used in humans for diseases related to imbalances in the regulation of immune responses or deficiencies of the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent diseases, chronic infections and cancer. It has beneficial effects on host defense mechanisms and restores depressed immune responses in animals and humans. Another interesting use of levamisole in humans is as a treatment for common warts (verruca vulgaris).
News of its anthelmintic efficacy and immune system benefits has been known among aquatic hobbyists for years. The problem, however, is that there is not much in the way of definitive information on its use and application in the hobby. Anecdotal accounts of how it has worked for those ‘outside the box’ aquarists who first braved its use with fish, and accounts of personal experience with Levamisole in individual aquariums are helpful, but the ‘your mileage may vary’ factor is immense. Word about its usefulness in treating internal parasites in the ornamental fish trade has spread, but information regarding its use is limited and sometimes conflicting. From the information I have found thus far, Levamisole HCl is safe to use in aquaria and effective against many internal parasites, especially nematodes, when used in appropriate dosages. It does not harm the bio-filter, plants, invertebrates or uninfected fish. As an added benefit, it boosts the immune competence of fish, humans, large animals, birds and some reptiles.
This article hopes to pull together what scientific information is available, a bunch of individual accounts, apply some common sense, and put together in one place a helpful guide to the use of Levamisole HCl for treating aquarium fish.
Levamisole Hydrochloride (Levamisole HCl) is rapidly absorbed into the digestive system. Less than 6% of the medication is excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Half-lives for several species have been recorded:
Cattle: 4 - 6 hours
Swine: 3.5 - 6.8 hours
Dogs: 1.8 - 4 hours
The mechanism of action for its immunostimulating effects is not well understood. It is believed that it restores cell-mediated immune function in peripheral T-lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis by monocytes.
The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to
above-normal levels. There are multitudes of medical studies being done with its use in humans and animals, the goal being to attain understanding of its immunomodulating mechanism. The mechanism will be defined, with time. However, at the time of the writing of this article, there is no complete answer to this question.
For us, it is enough to know that it does stimulate immune function in fish that are suffering due to parasites
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